英語版と兼ねて作っているので、途中から面倒になって、英語のみの説明になっています。ご免なさい。m(_ _)m 簡単な英語なので許して下さい。暇なときに訳します。
A pair of rhyming verse lines
二行連句, 対句, カプレット
Tearing of papers,
breaking rings a-twain,
Storming her world with sorrow's wind and rain.
(A Lover's Complaint)
英雄対韻句。iambic pentameter弱強５歩格でcoupletで２行づつ韻を踏む。この形式（iambic pentameter弱強５歩格）で韻を踏まないのが、blank
A repetition of consonants, especially at the beginning of related
words. It is a characteristic for the poems of Anglo-Saxons.
have I abide,
--Ezra Pound's translation)
(The Seafarer, 8th century Old English)
the gleaned land
with hot assys,
Girding with grievous
siege castles and towns
|tercet / triplet
||A unite of three verse lines,
usually rhyming with either with each other or with neighbouring lines.
Composed of tercets which are interlinked, in that each is joined
to the one following by a common rhyme: aba, bcb, cdc, and so on.
My mother's maydes when they did sowe and spynne,
They sang sometymes
a song of the feld mowse,
That forbicause her
lyvelood was but thynne,
Would nedes go seek her townyssh systers howse.
She thought her self
endured to much pain:
The sormy blastes her
cave so sore did sowse.
That wehn the forowse swymmed with the rain
Shye must lye cold and
whete in sorry plight;
And wours then that,
bare meet then did remain
Second Satire CVI)
||four-line stanza. The most common in English
||eight lines iambic stanza rhyming ab ab
ab cc. This form was introduced into English verse by Sir Thomas Wyatt
in early in the 16th c.
八行体 《各行 11 音節, 英詩では 10-11 音節, 押韻の順序は ab ab ab cc》.
Iambic 短長格, 弱強格
weak, strong(弱強) =ti-tum
|Trochaic 長短格, 強弱格
strong, weak(強弱) =tum-ti
|Anapestic 短短長格, 弱弱強格
weak, weak, strong(弱弱強) =ti-ti-tum
|Dactylic 長短短格, 強弱弱格
strong, weak, weak(強弱弱) =tum-ti-ti
|Amphibrachic 短長短格 弱強弱格
weak, strong, weak (弱強弱) =ti-tum-ti
|Spondaic 長長格 強強格
strong, strong (強強) =tum-tum
例: no more
|詩の meter は詩脚 (foot)
のもつリズムの型と詩脚の数により決定されます。 英詩ではリズムは音の強弱に基づき, 古典詩では音の長短に基づきます。また、 リズムの型には
iambic (英詩では弱強格, 古典詩では短長格)、anapestic (弱弱強格)、trochaic
(強弱格)、 dactylic (強弱弱格)などがあります。このリズム単位が詩行に幾つあるかによって詩は monometer
(1 歩格), dimeter (2 歩格), trimeter (3 歩格), tetrameter
(4 歩格), pentameter (5 歩格), hexameter (6 歩格), heptameter
(7 歩格), octameter (8 歩格)に分類されます。 そして、 両種の分類を組み合わせて iambic
pentameter (弱強[短長] 5 歩格), dactylic hexameter (強弱弱[長短短]
6 歩格)のように言います。[リーダーズ 英和辞典より]
pentameter (弱強[短長] 5 歩格)で、韻を踏まないBlank Verseを多用したと覚えて下さい。
||monometer: one foot (1 歩格)
|dimeter: two feet (２歩格)
|trimeter: three feet (３歩格)
|tetrameter: four feet (４歩格)
|pentameter: five feet (５歩格)
|hexameter: six feet （６歩格)
|heptameter: seven feet (７歩格)
|octameter: eight feet
|ballad meter or ballad
Usually a form of the folk ballad and its literary imitations, consisting
of a quatrain in which the first and third lines have four stresses
while the second and fourth have three stresses.
|scansion / to scan
iambic pentameter (弱強[短長] 5 歩格です。
ライムロイヤル, 帝王韻詩 《ababbcc の順に押韻し, 弱強五歩格の 7 行から成る連》シェイクスピアのVenus
and Adonis, The
Rape of Lucerece, A
Lover's Complaintはrhyme royal で書かれています。Geoffrey Chaucer(1343?-1400)も好んで使って、Torilus
and Criseyde, The Parlement of Foules やThe Canterbury
From off a hill whose
concave womb re-worded
A plaintful story from a sistering vale,
My spirits to attend this double voice accorded,
And down I laid to list the sad-tuned tale;
Ere long espied a fickle maid full pale,
Tearing of papers, breaking rings a-twain,
Storming her world with sorrow's wind and rain.
The term derives from the Italian sonetto a 'little sound'
or 'song'. A lyric poem comprising 14 rhyming lines
|Shakespeare (English) Sonnet
abab cdcd efef gg (3 quatrains, a couplet)（４行句、結句２行）
From fairest creatures
we desire increase,
That thereby beauty's rose might never die,
But as the riper should by time decease,
His tender heir might bear his memoriy:
But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes,
Feed'st thy light'st flame with self-substantial fuel,
Making a famine where abundance lies,
Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel.
Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament
And only herald to the gaudy spring,
Within thine own bud buriest thy content
And, tender churl, makest waste in niggarding.
Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee.
abab bcbc cdcd ee（3 quatrains, a couplet）（４行句、結句２行）
Happy ye leaves when
as those lily hands,
Which hold my life in their dead doing might,
Shall handle you and hold in loves soft bands,
Lyke captives trembling at the victors sight.
And happy lines, on which with starry light,
Those lamping eyes will deigne sometimes to look
And reade the sorowes of my dying spright,
Written with teares in harts close bleeding book.
And happy rymes bathed in the sacred brooke,
Of Helicon whence she derived is,
When ye behold that Angels blessed looke,
My soules long lacked foode, my heavens blis.
Leaves, lines, and rymes, seeke her to please alone,
Whom if ye please, I care for other none.
Edmund. Amoretti, Sonnet 1)
abbaabba cdecde (octave, sestet)
Also known as the Italian sonnet, the form originated in Italy in
the 13th c. and was perfected by Petrarch (1304-1374). It was imported
to English poetry in the 16th century.
a piece of verse eight lines long with alternating rhymes; a term
usually employed to describe the earlier and larger section of a
the second part of a sonnet, consisting of six lines, as distinct
form the larger first part, the octave.
|Verse and Prose
Verse is the principal means of expression in Shakespeare, while
prose is used in particular circumstances. Four plays are entirely
in verse (Richard
II , King
Henry VI and 3
Henry VI ). Most plays contain far moer verse than prose.
Only five plays have more prose then verse. (2
The Merry Wives of Windsor, Much
Ado About Nothing, As
You Like It,and
Twelfth Night ). Please consider the effects and reasons
of the shift from verse to prose in the following scene.
that the earthy and cold hand of death
Lies on my toungue. No, Pecy, thou art dust,
And food for ----
For worms, brave Percy: fare thee well, great heart!
Ill-weaved ambition, how much art thou shrunk!
When that this body did contain a spirit,
A kingdom for it was too small a bound;
But now two paces of the vilest earth
Is room enough: this earth that bears thee dead
Bears not alive so stout a gentleman.
If thou wert sensible of courtesy,
I should not make so dear a show of zeal:
But let my favours hide thy mangled face;
And, even in thy behalf, I'll thank myself
For doing these fair rites of tenderness.
Adieu, and take thy praise with thee to heaven!
Thy ignominy sleep with thee in the grave,
But not remember'd in thy epitaph!
[He spieth FALSTAFF on the ground]
What, old acquaintance! could not all this flesh
Keep in a little life? Poor Jack, farewell!
I could have better spared a better man:
O, I should have a heavy miss of thee,
If I were much in love with vanity!
Death hath not struck so fat a deer to-day,
Though many dearer, in this bloody fray.
Embowell'd will I see thee by and by:
Till then in blood by noble Percy lie.
[Exit PRINCE HENRY]
FALSTAFF: Embowelled! if thou embowel me to-day, I'll give
you leave to powder me and eat me too to-morrow. 'Sblood,'twas time
to counterfeit, or that hot termagant Scot had paid me scot and
lot too. Counterfeit? I lie, .... (1
Henry VI. 5.4.83-112)
Unrhymed verse, with five iambic feet to a line, a measure introduced
into England by the Earl of Surrey (1517-47), the poet, which became
the basic verse form of Elizabethan drama. iambic pentameter. (弱強５歩格）で韻を踏まない。無韻の弱強５詩脚
But soft, what
light through younder window breaks? (Romeo
and Juliet. 2.1.44-5) (Bold=strong=feet)
The human heatbeat is the same rhythm of iamb.
The line ends with an extra unstressed syllable, giving eleven
syllables instead of ten. the effect of making the thought itself
ironic, the effect of making the line more pliant, and often give
a quality of working through the thought, sometimes giving it a
haunted and unfinished sound as though leaving the thought in the
air: the effects are different.
e.g. motion, notion
cf. masculine ending - end with a stressed syllable
||Fewer than five beats in a
line in an otherwise regular passage. Please look for the reasons.
The line is a short line because, for instance, a movement is needed,
it make make the line rhythmically, it may the time is need for the
character to do something, the thought may overwhelm the character,
the character may be waiting for an answer from other characters,
or it may be just winding up of the scene, etc.
||A six feet line. The speaker
might lose in his own oratory. Please look for the reasons.
A slight pause occurring mid-line. Sometimes a caesura is used
for the listener to be ready to take in the rhyme.
As my sweet Richard.
Yet again, methinks
Some unborn sorrow ripe in fortune's womb.
A line is split between two or more characters. The split line
heightens the sense of people sharing a situation. Sometimes they
may express irony or characters are sharing a situation and yet
their viewpoints are very different.
||What o'clock tomorrow?
||Shall I send to thee?
||By the hour of nine.
|But note me, signor ---
||Mark you this, Bassanio?
|| The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose.
|final rhyming couplet
They are used quite purposefully to finish off a scene, or part
of a scene or a soliloquy.
I'll so offend to
make offence a skill
Redeeming time when men think least I will.
figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstract ideas are
endowed with human qualities, e.g., allegorical morality plays where
characters include Good Deeds, Beauty, and Death. John Ruskin termed
sentimentalized, exaggerated personification the "pathetic
fallacy." (From encyclopedia.com
Shakespeare used two types of irony:verbal and dramatic.
Verbal irony is saying one things but meaning another. In Julius
Caesar, when Mark Antony refers in his funeral oration to Brutus
as "an honorable man" repeatedly, he really means the
opposite. Dramatic irony occurs in a play when the audience knows
facts that the characters in the play are ignorant of. For instance,
Sophocles' Oedipus Rex, in which Oedipus try to avoid to kis his
father and marry to his own mother but he does without knowing it,
while the audience is fully aware of the fact.
two incongruous or classing words brought together to make a striking
Parting is such sweet
and Juliet. 2.1.229)
O brawling love, O loving hate,(Romeo
and Juliet. 1.1.169)
||use of words, usually humorous, based
on (a) the several meanings of one word, (b) a similarity of meaning
between words that are pronounced the same, or (c) the difference
in meanings between two words pronounced the same and spelled somewhat
similarly. (From encyclopedia.com
inappropriate, muddled or mistaken use of words. Hostess Quickly
Henry IV is a notable example. マラプロピズム 《ことばの滑稽な誤用で,
DOGBERRY: Marry, sir,
I would have some confidence* with you that decerns** you nearly.
Ado About Nothing. 3.5.2)
confidence* =conference, decerns**=concerns
Bombast is boastfull or ranting language. 大言壮語
Tiger's heart wrapped
in a woman's hide. (3
Henry VI 1.4.138)
Hyperbole is extravagant and obvious exaggeration. 誇張(法)
Let Rome in Tiber
melt and the wide arch
of the ranged empire fall!(Antony
and Cleopatra. 1.1.35-6)
|You and thou
You - you- your- your
formal and distant form of address suggesting respect for a superior
or courtesy to a social equal.
Thou (主格)- thee (目的格)- thy (所有格)- thine(所有代名詞)
informal and close form and can imply either closeness or contempt.
||expected, usual, polite, superior
||unexpected, unusual, affection,
thou hast thy father much offended.
Hamlet: Mother, you have my father much offended.
Gertrude: Come, come, you answer with an idle tongue.
Hamlet: Go, go, you question with a wicked tongue.
Gertrude: Why, how now, Hamlet!
Hamlet: What's the matter now?
Gertrude: Have you forgot me?
Hamlet: No, by the rood, not so:
You are the queen, your husband's brother's wife;
And--would it were not so!--you are my mother.
Gertrude: Nay, then, I'll set those to you that
Hamlet: Come, come, and sit you down; you
shall not budge;
You go not till I set you up a glass
Where you may see the inmost part of you.
Gertrude: What wilt thou do? thou wilt not
murder me? Help, help, ho!
Hamlet always addresses Gertrude as "you," which shows
his formal attitude and a mental/social distance. On the other
hand, Queen Gertrude uses both "thou" and "you"
which implys her emotional turbulence.
"Ye/you" or "thou/thee" sometimes show social
Falstaff: Dost thou
Hostess: Pray ye, pacify yourself, Sir John.
Henry IV. 2.4.77-8)
SIR TOBY BELCH: O
knight thou lackest a cup of canary: when did I see thee
so put down?
SIR ANDREW: Never in your life, I think; unless you
see canary put me down. Methinks sometimes I have no more wit
than a Christian or an ordinary man has: but I am a great eater
of beef and I believe that does harm to my wit.
SIR TOBY BELCH: No question. (Twelfth
It can be insulting if it was used by an inferior to address a
superior social rank.
The third person singular present indicative "-s" which
we are familiar with was originally a dialect of Northern England
or North Midland. By the 15th century, the usage of "-s"
ending spread to south and by 16th century, it became popular as
colloquial and informal way and on the other hand -eth ending remained
as a formal and old-fashioned usage. In short, "-th" and
"-s" were alternatives in Shakespearean text. Look at
the next quotation. He changed "-eth" and "-s"
even in the same line.
The quality of mercy
is not strained,
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest,
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.
Merchant of Venice 4.1.181-4)
cf. Hath (has), doth (does)
||Nor I know not where I did
lodge last night. (King
||Nor that I am more
better than Prospero...
||This was the most unkindest
cut of all.
3. Cultural Backgraound
||meaning 'rebirth'. a term used to describe theflowering
of art, scholarship, and litereture that took place during the fifteenth
and sixteenthe century in Eurpoe. The movement began in Italy in the
fourteenth century. Since the Renaissance began in Italy, many of
the leading Renaissance figures were Italian. eg. Dante Alighieri(1265-1321),
Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) or Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)ルネッサンス
||The movement that began when King Henry VIII split from
the Pope and the Catholic Church of Rome and founded the Protestant
Church of England. 宗教改革
By about 1400 the breakup of the Mongol empire and the growth of
the Ottoman Empire had blocked Europe's overland trade routes to
the East. The search for new trade routes, the rise of merchant
capitalism, and the desire to exploit the potential of a global
economy initiated the European ﾒage of discovery.ﾓ Henry the Navigator
promoted voyages along the coast of Africa that helped dispel the
superstition and misinformation that had impeded previous attempts
to sail through the torrid zone. The extent of the globe was revealed
by Bartholomew Diaz's rounding of the Cape of Good Hope (1486-87),
Vasco da Gama's voyage to India (1497-98), Christopher Columbus's
first voyage to America (1492), and the circumnavigation of the
globe by the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan (1519-22). In the
16th cent. Spanish explorers, notably Vasco de Balboa, Hern㌻ Cort市,
Francisco Pizarro, Cabeza de Vaca, Hern㌻ De Soto, and Francisco
de Coronado, explored large areas of the Americas. Much of the interior
of North America was revealed in the 17th cent. by Samuel de Champlain,
Sieur de La Salle, Louis Jolliet, Jacques Marquette, and other French
explorers. (From encyclopedia.com
4. Periods of English Literature 英文学の時代区分
||Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Period
||Middle English Period
|| The Renaissance
||Commonwealth Period(Puritan Interregnum)
||The Neoclassical Period
||The Augustan Age (Age of Pope)
||The Age of Sensibility (Age of Johnson)
||The Romantic Period
||The Victorian Period
||Aestheticism and Decadence
||The Edwardian Period
||The Georgian Period
||The Modern Period